Like any other aptitude test, the ADF aptitude test focuses on individual’s psychological aspects. This is to identify the extent of capabilities with regards to the prospect role of the applicant. Of which, a batch of military aptitude test questions and answers should be filled out and answered.

The ADF aptitude test mostly focuses on two processes:

General Ability Test
Mathematical Ability test

Joining the Australian army has these exams that one must first take. But first, preparation for army test is vital. Weeks of intensive preparation is expected from any individual that is going to apply in ADF.

General Ability Test

The General Ability Test is one of the most important parts of Australian defence force recruitment. It involves basic arithmetic, verbal reasoning, grammar, analogy and abstract reasoning tests.

Arithmetic tests involve addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. Verbal reasoning focuses on the ability of a person to communicate while grammar is to measure the language skills. Analogy test is to measure the analysis capability of the person.

Mathematical Ability Test

Unlike the General Ability test which covers only the basic numerical tests, the Mathematical Ability tests tackle more on the advance feature like formulas, calculating geometry, trigonometry, exponential equations and much more.

That is why it is imperative to go through a lot of studying, training, and refresher before taking the actual exams. You will need comprehensive ADF training courses to help you on how to pass an aptitude test.

Since dedication is of vital importance prior the date of the exam, you will need a lot of defence aptitude test practice. You could try the military practice test online but it is best to choose wisely in that regard.

To give you some ideas on what tests you are going to take, you can see some Australian defence force aptitude test examples via Google search. There is aptitude test scores army too from which you can base your preliminary take on how you will do during the exams.

Other Ability Specific Tests

Aside from those two major processes, there are also other branches to which specific ability is determined.

Roles like Pilot, Aviation, Officer and other Specialist occupation has an added or different process to go through in order to be assured of the capability of an individual.

These roles have more intricate requirements such as handling advanced aviation electronic system, calculations on speed, distance, time, and even exact fuel consumption. And thus, it is highly advised that a person should be well prepared for these specific tests.

Are you a part of the National Defence System? Do you serve in the Canadian military? If you are a part of the military in this amazing country or simply know someone how serves in the ranks of the Canadian soldiers, then you have to know that there are certain advantages given to them which you may not be aware of. For instance, did you know that there are certain financial benefits, like special mortgage rates, which can only be offered to members of the military? Everyone living in Canada knows that Government Relocation is always on the minds of persons serving in the Canadian Forces, as well as the Government of Canada personnel members who can never know when a new relocation is to occur. In this extremely volatile environment and world of uncertainty, there are few options left for the brave military men and women striving to protect the country all the time, and these options are even more limited when it comes to the financial point of view. The most important aspect that people part of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or any form of the Government forces should take into consideration is to look for an absolute expert in the economic field so as to be sure that their finance needs will be met accordingly and the best solutions brought forward.

As a consequence, you should always know what to expect from a specialist in this field and here are some of the major aspects to look for when choosing the most suitable mortgage broker for military needs. First of all, check out if the professional you are looking at is experienced in the field of military mortgages and not simply in the finance world in general. The best way to do this is to ask or find out whether that particular financial expert has worked or spent years in certain institutions or positions which have allowed him or her to develop a vast expertise in government relocation. Apart from the experience which is mandatory, there also other aspects that a military mortgage broker must fulfill in order to be considered an amazing expert and these are a spotless reputation and the way in which he or she offers crucial information about the transferability or portability of mortgages in the eventuality of a new relocation before the mortgage term is finalized.

In order to conclude, if you really want to know that you have made the right choice and chose the best mortgage professional then you have to look for a financial advisor which is extremely well versed in the field of military postings, as well as related mortgages so as to be able to create your perfect and most suitable solution for each Relocation Program. Secondly, look for brokers who tell you the hidden side of the story and let you know about the importance of recalculations and mortgage changes upon further relocations. Last, but not least, always take into account the feedback from former clients or reputation that a certain economical specialist has gathered over the years. The more positive testimonials and excellent reviews, the better it is for you and the more likely it is that you will be given excellent pieces of advice or financial guidance.

Because the media landscape is rife with so many lawyers, you would be hard pressed to not find one anywhere you look. Television, film, books, disaster zones, the Internet, an annual convention, and other assorted venues turn up a widespread assortment of attorneys. Each year, film goers are treated to another attorney adventure. Defence lawyers in movies may be the superhero stopping an oncoming train or protecting a train wreck of a client. Or they may be defenders of evil.

A long standing favorite lawyer based film is A Few Good Men. The military court drama pits one military service branch against another. In this case, Navy versus Marine is in-fighting spit and shine suits against the rough and ready men of action.

A Few Good Men is based on defending an indefensible action when a person is a cog caught in a bureaucratic machine with corrupt elements. Kevin Bacon plays Marine defending attorney Captain Jack Ross. In one gripping moment, under harsh cross examination by hotshot Navy Lt. Daniel Kaffee, portrayed by Tom Cruise, top brass witness Col. Nathan R. Jessep fires back an answer to a question. He proclaims men like him are sentinels, handling the truth of what it takes to protect the American public. The hard-nosed watchdogs, products of unimaginable circumstance, pledged allegiance to keep the American public from encountering their worst nightmares. Don’t blame them for what the American public turned them into.

Ashley Judd paired up with Morgan Freemen in a few good films, one of which was High Crimes. The actors both portrayed out of the norm lawyers. In the case of illustrious super attorney Claire Kubik, she is partner in a reputable, but conservative law firm, who was yanked into defending her husband. Her husband Tom, James Caviezel, is accused by the military of massacring innocent Latin villagers during a military operation. In this case, versus A Few Good Men, military justice system is in the works against a soldier it determined was acting independent of orders.

Pick any John Grisham film and the audience finds a lawyer on the run from or blindsided by his worst nightmares. Double-crossing, shady colleagues, and trickster clients who care more about the legal win than the legal right of their case. The Firm, for example, is a lesson that intersects a consumer warning and food for thought. If something is too good to be true, it probably is a misrepresentation. If you get what you want, the means may not matter.

In the film, the legal agency seduces lawyer Mitch, played by Tom Cruise, into the fold with all the trappings fit for an Ivy League top dog. But then attorney Mitch must defend himself and his wife Abby’s right to abandon Emerald City when it turns out to be a beautiful nightmare behind its curtain of illusions. In this movie, the attorney must defend everything good he believes he stands for.

In Primal Fear, high priced legal wiz Martin Veil is chasing his dreams, and is stopped short. A sensational opportunity falls in his lap to defend Aaron, a shy, stuttering altar boy, from the death penalty stemming from the vicious murder of a priest. This classic movie is another optical illusion filled with defining moments for Martin. Martin comes to unveil the truths of his own shortcomings and self cons.

If there is any defining moment in the public defender realm it would be summed up with the film To Kill a Mockingbird. Not only was the movie a reflection on the reasons many flock to law school, but a reflection of film as a social commentary about defining moments in social history. It is a classic piece of Americana for these reasons, as well as iconic to film school students as forerunner on par with contemporary documentary film making. The American Film Institute (AFI) honored Atticus Finch as the 20th century hero and To Kill a Mockingbird as among the top 25 films of all time. The film has been honored by the Library of Congress with preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry because the film is significant culturally, historically, or aesthetically.

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If you are part of the Canadian military forces and see the possibility of relocation in the future, then you most definitely need a special type of mortgage to accommodate your style of life and suit your possibilities in the best possible manner. Whether you are working for the Department of National Defence or any other institution of the state that has a similar manner of organizing, you will surely need a professional’s advice when it comes to financing and loans at one moment or another. Regardless if you want to purchase a house for the first time or to take out equity from your current home, the best possibilities come from the experts in the field.

But how can one really know whether a broker is professional or not? Or how can the average person realize if that particular broker is experienced? Apart from asking for a certificate or license to verify the accreditation, there are little papers to show the level of skill and the capacity to facilitate loans that a provider may or may not have therefore it is crucial to know the small particularities and tips used in the mortgage world. Here are some of the things that you need to consider, regardless if you live in Alberta, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, British Columbia or Nova Scotia.

The number one way to make an educated choice is to get unbiased advice from a specialist. You can look for a professional working in the financial area of activity and specializing in the military mortgages set for Canada of course. Because Canada is one of the countries with two official languages, English and French you can also try to look for brokers specialized in loans for employers of the Ministère de la Défense Nationale. Ask the specialist you see as much about the Canadian military services as you can. Of course everyone knows that the country has 10 provinces and 3 territories or that the DND is a department of the Canadian government which is responsible for the defence of Canada’s values and interests at home and overseas, but how many people you consult know that the Department of National Defence has the largest position in terms of budgets amongst the Canadian government bodies? Or that there is a special DND clause which can be used by military personnel serving the country? According to this, if you are in the situation of selling your property as a result of mandatory relocation with the army, you are guaranteed that the mortgage penalty you endure will not be superior to the equivalent of 3 months of simple interest. An experienced financing professional will also let you know that this limit is also the maximum penalty for which you will be reimbursed by the Government from the main funding envelope.

Perhaps the best trick that you can use would be to resort to a person that has made a name for himself or herself in Canadian government relocation. By doing so, you have clear guarantees of the future outcome and also be able to see past results of that particular financial advisor. Forget about asking questions such as why the Deputy Minister of National Defence heads the DND and begin to question your broker about the special clauses for Canadian army members.

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The US has established a program of Security Cooperation with foreign sovereign nations who share common interest and values to meet common defence goals. Island Consulting has learnt that the Security Programmes must be authorised by the US Foreign Assistance Act and, as amended, by the Arms Export Control Act to enable the Department of Defence, or commercial contractor, to provide defence services and articles in support of national policies and objectives.

The two key programs within the security cooperation brief are Foreign Military Sales and International Military Education and Training, (FMS & IMET). The FMF program is managed by the Department of Defence on a not for profit basis. The beneficial country in question has grant aid allocated which may be “spent” against the acquisition of US defence articles in support of security cooperation.
When required defence articles or services have been identified, in the end user country, the countries representative must provide a Letter of Request normally through the local US Embassy Office of Defence Cooperation representative.

The reply could be in the form of Price and Availability information or a Letter of Offer and Acceptance. If the requesting country accepts the LOA the US will then provide the material or services offered.

A wide range of articles may be requested through the FMF program including such things as; Electronic Defence Systems, Logistics systems, Support equipment, and training. Training in US military schools can also be available particularly where items being acquired are similar to those items being transferred through the FMF programme.

As a separate line of Defence Cooperation countries can be offered support for IMET International Military Education and Training, after making the appropriate request as for FMF.

US companies operating in the defence field can benefit their European business by taking advantage of these Cooperation programs and implementing IT and Defence systems supported by FMF.
It is interesting to see how the US Foreign Assistance is requested at the Congress level as this gives an idea of the priorities assigned to individual recipient nations.

If we limit our interest to Central and eastern Europe we can see that the mature Western nations are understandably not offered direct assistance, but the former Eastern European nations have accrued considerable benefit as they bring their Defence infrastructure and systems more in line with western standards. Typically Hungary, Poland and the Czech republic have been beneficial recipients but this has now moved in favour of countries such as Bulgaria, Romania the Ukraine and most recently Turkey.
By way of example Island Consulting understands that in 2005 Bulgaria received approval for $6.9m, Romania $29m and Ukraine $3m whilst Turkey received $33.7m.

Island Consulting is an independent Research Consultancy giving your organisation business advantage in Government, Defence and Public Sector account research within Western Europe. Services include: Market Intelligence for ICT companies targeting Government, Defence and Public Sector accounts. If you are focusing on these customers Island Consulting can deliver specific market intelligence data to improve your business opportunities. Three key methodologies are employed to meet customers market intelligence requirements.

1.Meetings and interviews with MoD, Public Sector and Defence experts enables up to date information to be effectively collected for standard reports or customer specific requirements. 2. Dedicated data gathering includes opens source desk research augmented by direct follow up with the targeted accounts. 3. Telephone research is available for customer projects or sales campaigns.

By the afternoon of the 26th requests for aid and assistance came from the affected countries of Sri Lanka and the Maldives–the Government of India (GOI) announced Operation Rainbow and Operation Castor for the two countries respectively. These operations were also run from the IDS headquarters with representatives of strategic ministries and departments present to coordinate civil-military efforts.

Far away in the Pacific Ocean, at the Hawaii-based headquarters of the US military’s joint Pacific Command (PACOM) it was still the afternoon of the 25th across the International Date Line, when reports of the earthquake and Tsunami first came in. Operational planning for responding to the disaster began immediately with PACOM in direct contact with US Ambassadors and local military officials of the affected nations. By the 27th this effort had been named Operation Unified Assistance and was backed by the formation of an inter-agency core group at Washington to synchronize civil-military operations.

The US military has the largest presence in the region and it seemed natural that they would be deployed for relief operations. However this intervention was attributed by some commentators to the US government’s “plan” of re-establishing military relations with Indonesia and gaining sympathy/appreciation from Muslims (India’s swift response in dispatching aid its neighbors was similarly described as “power projection” and India’s “pitch” for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council). Curiously these same commentators also criticized the Bush administration for initially providing a very low aid package of 3.5 million dollars. Now if the US really had a plan for gaining influence or appreciation would they have come up with such a low figure, when even Tsunami-hit India announced a 25 million dollar aid package for its neighbors?

In fact, like in all other countries, the US military also has international search and rescue responsibilities. Additionally it has commitments to allies like Thailand (affected by the Tsunami) and a military understanding, stemming from past exercises, with other powers in the region. The first reports of the Tsunami disaster had come from India, Thailand, and Sri Lanka, of which India and Thailand had announced that they would not require any international relief assistance. PACOM had established a regional base for relief operations at Utapao in Thailand by the 28th December and sent disaster relief assessment teams to the affected countries.

It was at this time that Indonesia finally uncovered the massive destruction in its remote province of Aceh and the total uprooting of its local administration, and consequently appealed for aid internationally. The US increased its aid package to 350 million dollars and dispatched military assets to Aceh, which were the first to reach the region on the 1st of January. India also responded to Indonesia’s appeal for aid and despite its armed forces being already engaged in four simultaneous operations, announced Operation Gambhir (Grim), dispatching two ships and aircraft that began relief work on the 5th of January.

Inter-military cooperation

With Indian troops being the first to engage in relief operations, alongside local troops in Sri Lanka and Maldives, while the Americans played that role in Indonesia, the US government announced the formation of a “Tsunami Core Group” on the 29th December to coordinate relief work in this unprecedented global calamity. That same day the US asked India to join this group alongside long-term allies Japan and Australia.

Here again there was criticism that this core group was formed deliberately to bypass existing United Nation’s bodies–a criticism that saw every US action through the prism of the recent Iraq War. In fact the core group was formed so that aid efforts would be streamlined, duplication of relief would be avoided, and operational requirements for each nation would be met speedily. Besides the large monetary aid promised by Japan and Australia, each country also put in military forces into their relief work. Although Australian aircraft were dropping supplies in Indonesia by early January, their ships did not reach the region until the middle of that month. Similarly Japanese self-defense forces were fully deployed on the Indonesian coast only at the end of January.

So the “Tsunami Core Group” was in fact coordination between the United States and India–both leading and dominating operations in South-east Asia and South Asia respectively.

Secondly even though foreign ministers and secretaries from the core group countries had daily teleconferences to coordinate efforts, their lack of operational knowledge and real-time information meant that these teleconferences became unnecessary. Later on Canada, EU countries, and the UN also became part of the core group, which was finally dissolved a week after the post-Tsunami relief operations had begun.

Other international efforts

Apart from the militaries of the affected nations, and the forces contributed by the Tsunami Core Group, there were countries in the region that also gave crucial aid to their neighbors. The global response was also commendable–Germany and Sweden were directly affected by the Tsunami as they lost thousands of their citizens in the tourist resorts of Thailand to the destructive waves. But due to the distances involved, global military assets took a long time to deploy in the affected region.

In South-East Asia, Singapore and Malaysia were specially noted for their contribution of military assets–Singapore deployed 5 C-130 aircraft, 4 CH-47 and 4 Super Puma helicopters, and two LST vessels. Along with Thailand it also opened its bases for the use of military assets from long-term ally, the United States. Malaysia deployed 2 C-130 and 3 other aircraft, 2 helicopters, one ship, and medical and engineering teams to Indonesia. It also opened its bases for use by the United Nations relief agencies.

In South Asia, Bangladesh sent 2 C-130 aircraft, 3 helicopters, and 2 ships for relief work in Sri Lanka–this being the first occasion when the Bangladesh Navy has deployed its assets in an overseas operation. Curiously Pakistan, which is a much bigger military power than Bangladesh, contributed similar assets for the post-Tsunami relief operations–4 ships, 2 C-130 aircraft, and a medical team. Out of their four ships deployed, the PNS Badar and the PNS Tariq happened to have made a port call to Male on December 23rd and were still in the Maldives when the Tsunami hit three days later–these two ships joined the Maldives Coast Guard and the Indian Air Force aircraft for search and rescue operations on the 27th.The Pakistani Armed Forces certainly had the capacity to contribute more since they have received several C-130 and P-3 Orion aircraft, helicopters, and vessels, as military aid from the United States in the last six years.

But at least they contributed some military assets–the most bewildering absence was of China. The country has acquired naval bases in South-East Asia, has professed its ambition of obtaining other bases in South Asia, and is a rising economic and military power like India. However the communist nation neither sent the PLA navy nor deployed the PLA air force in relief operations in its neighborhood. It only promised monetary aid, sent one medical team to Sri Lanka, and some relief material to Indonesia.

The UN and NGOs

The scale of destruction in the 26th December earthquake and Tsunami necessitated the massive deployment of military assets by the affected countries, their neighbors, and the Tsunami Core Group. The United Nations and Non Governmental Organizations did not have the resources or the assets to provide timely aid in each affected area. The repairing of infrastructure and communication links, provision of relief material, and setting up of medical camps, by the military forces was a great help to the UN and NGOs in starting their own operations. But they had other differences (and some advantages) over the military forces in the delivery of aid:

Organizational infrastructure: the United Nations, and its various agencies, has regional headquarters and branch offices all around the world, which provide first-hand information on calamities or emergencies to the central headquarters in New York. They also employ people of all nationalities and linguistic groups, which give them an advantage in setting up operations in affected regions. The bigger non-governmental organizations like the International Red Cross/Crescent, Care, World Vision, also have worldwide offices and headquarters that enable them to receive information on calamities and organize rehabilitation measures. With regard to financial resources, the UN and NGOs have a comparable access to money and material with most countries. But while national aid funds, for example the Prime Minister’s Relief Fund in India, spend aid money directly for relief, the UN agencies and NGOs consume unspecified amounts of similar aid money in financing their own organizations (payment of salaries, cost of operations, etc.). By way of comparison, in India’s relief operation for Indonesia named Gambhir (Grim), two ships with onboard helicopters and 40-tonnes of relief material operated for one month off the port of Meulaboh. The Ministry of Defence sanctioned a sum of Rs 100 crore (app $25 million) from within the Naval Budget to cover the cost of this operation…without expecting reimbursement or depending on charity.

Assets: the UN and its agencies have access to transport assets with the United Nations Humanitarian Air Services (UNHAS) and the United Nations Joint Logistics Center (UNJLC). They can hire vehicles, helicopters, aircraft, and ships with the assistance of other international sources like the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID). The UN also has access to the military assets, bases, and ports of each home country–the NGOs piggyback on both the UN and the home country’s military and civil assets (the bigger NGOs though have their own dedicated air and road transport assets). But this process of hiring, purchase, and deployment in the affected region takes up time and in the case of a global calamity, which the Indian Ocean Tsunami was, the deployment of international military assets was a great help to the operations of the United Nations and non-governmental organizations. For civil-military coordination the UN has the office of Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) and Civil-Military Coordination officers (CMCoord) working under the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)–the latter office had drawn up principles for military support to the United Nations’ humanitarian operations, which were endorsed by the Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC).

Diplomatic relations: India’s excellent relations, diplomatic understanding, and military relationship with the other Tsunami-affected countries went a long way in ensuring the smooth conduct of its relief operations. In June 2006, after an earthquake on the landmass of Sumatra the Indian forces launched Operation Marham (balm) for relief work, which included the deployment of the navy vessels INS Rajput and INS Tabar and the air force’s IL-76 aircraft with 35-tonnes of relief material in total. The US had similar relations with only Thailand, while suspicion and hostility marred its diplomatic understanding with Malaysia and Indonesia respectively–the relief operations were an opportunity to repair these relationships for the US (and also Australia). The United Nations and NGOs were mostly welcomed in countries like Sri Lanka and Thailand but were looked upon with suspicion in Indonesia due to the experience of the creation of independent East Timor. Though the US had military bases close to the Tsunami-affected nation of Somalia, no US personnel or assets were deployed in relief operations due to the uneasy relationship between the two countries, and it were officials of the United Nations who carried out a disaster assessment of the region (surprisingly neighboring African or Arab countries did not aid in these operations even though Somalia, like Indonesia, had appealed for international aid). UN agencies began relief operations from the 28th of December due to the lack of deployable assets described above, by which time hundreds of lives had been lost in Somalia.

Future Coordination

Both the US-led relief operations in South-East Asia and the India-led operations in South Asia revealed some interesting features and shortcomings:

Airlift capacity: Operation Unified Assistance showcased the awesome ability of the US military to transport troops, equipment, and relief goods by air across vast distances in a relatively short time. Their resources, particularly in long-range aircraft and mid-air refueling, gave them an edge over their other allies engaged in relief operations. India’s timely assistance to its neighbors and to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands came from the heavy-lift IL-76 and IL-78 aircraft–the medium-lift An-32s were also laudable in these operations. But the IAF’s Avro aircraft and the Navy’s Dornier and Islander planes took several refueling stops in delivering aid to the affected regions. Secondly many damaged airfields could not support operations by the heavy IL-76 aircraft. Lastly while India has mid-air refueling capability, this has been reserved so far for its fighter aircraft. These shortcomings will be overcome as India continues to upgrade the aircraft in its inventory (the recent move to acquire the C-130J Super Hercules aircraft is motivated by their ability to operate from short and damaged runways). In its helicopter operations the IAF scored with its Mi-17s and Mi-8s but the shortcomings of the Chetak and Cheetah helicopters onboard the navy and coast guard vessels were exposed.

Sealift capacity: the Indian Navy earned worldwide acclaim by the promptness of its deployment for the post-Tsunami operations and the speed by which it reached the affected areas. In the actual conduct of operations, particularly in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands where harbors were unfit for use and jetties had been destroyed, a clear shortcoming was seen in the delivery of aid to the shore using helicopters (see above) or boats. The amphibious vessels overcame this difficulty until the repair operations were completed–these vessels are of the old LST (Landing Ship Tank) and LCU class. Their drawbacks in speed, range, and tonnage (as well as total numbers), prompted the Navy to upgrade its amphibious capability by acquiring the USS Trenton. A Landing Platform Dock (LPD), with 4 onboard Mark Eight landing craft and 6 H-3 Sea King Helicopters, this vessel has now joined the Indian Navy under the new name INS Jalashva (water horse).

Military coordination: the different branches of the US military have been tasked to carry out joint operations under a single field-commander by the 1986 Goldwater-Nicols Defense Reorganization Act. So planes of the air force, ships of the navy, artillery guns of the army, and personnel from all three services, will be placed under a single commander in a particular region. The joint headquarters of that commander will plan and execute operations involving all these assets and personnel. Thus in the Tsunami disaster of 2004-05 the Pacific Command (PACOM), then under the Navy’s Admiral Thomas Fargo, planned Op Unified Assistance–the military assets and personnel drawn from the US mainland and from independent commands in S Korea and Japan came under the control of PACOM. The actual conduct of the operation was tasked to the joint headquarters (CSF-536) set up at Utapao–the assets and personnel deployed came under the CSF-536 Commander, the Marine Corps’ Lt. General Rusty Blackman. A joint headquarters for the three armed forces of India was proposed by a Group of Ministers under the NDA government in 2001–due to opposition within the services operational control of military assets was not handed over to this Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) Headquarters. India’s five post-Tsunami relief operations were planned and coordinated by the IDS, which was then under the command of the Navy’s Vice-Admiral Raman Puri–unlike in the US, operational control of military assets remained with the individual service. In Operation Sea Waves actual conduct of operations and delivery of relief within the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was tasked to the ANC, then under the Army’s Lt. General BS Thakur.

Under the New Framework for the US-India Defense Relationship, the two countries will increase military coordination and hold joint exercises to respond effectively to future disasters. The lead in this regard was taken by the US Pacific Command (PACOM) and India’s Integrated Defence Staff (IDS). Additionally the US has asked for the posting of an Indian liaison officer at PACOM Headquarters. With regard to maritime security India is already a part of the US-led PSI (Proliferation Security Initiative) and CSI (Container Security Initiative), apart from its own Operations Tasha and Swan.

Apart from exercises like Cobra Gold with long-term allies the US began exercises with ASEAN nations titled SEACAT (South East Asian Cooperation against Terrorism) and CARAT (Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training) from 2005. India holds institutional exercises with 6 nations (of which Exercise Malabar is held with the US) among 22 other exercises, and has defense agreements and joint patrols with ASEAN nations.

In early 2006 the USS Ronald Reagan and the INS Viraat (both aircraft carriers) held an impromptu exercise off the coast of Sri Lanka–the Indian Navy was invited to post observers for the Valiant Shield and Rimpac exercises held in the Pacific Ocean. An Indian Medical Officer has been deployed on the USS Mercy since mid-2006 to improve inter-operability in disaster relief operations.

Areas of future coordination may possibly include:

Logistics and bases: the refueling and refitting of US Navy vessels at Indian Navy dockyards would save the US vessels the usual diversion to Diego Garcia in the far south for these facilities. These dockyards regularly service navy vessels from Sri Lanka and Mauritius, and recently provided refitting facilities to a French warship. The vast landmass of India is covered with air bases where the US air and army assets have been sent for joint exercises with their Indian counterparts–here again refueling and maintenance facilities will probably be extended to US air assets to improve inter-operability and cooperation. On the other hand the US has a wealth of bases and ports, which it either owns or leases, around the Pacific Ocean, Arabian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and the littoral countries, which can be used by Indian naval and air assets for joint operations and exercises in regions far removed from the landmass of India.

UN Operations: the permanent presence of two large military forces in the Indian Ocean region will increase the options for the sanctioning of UN Peacekeeping or Humanitarian operations. Especially when these forces have complimentary skills and capacities, and are practiced in a variety of joint operations in all kinds of terrain.

Military coalitions: speedy and effective action against terrorist groups harbored by weak or unstable regimes, with the sanction of the UN or at least the neighboring countries, will perhaps be the primary focus for the 21st century militaries. For the Indian Ocean region, and maybe even for West, Central, and East Asia, the increasing coordination between the US and Indian armed forces will by itself be a threat to such groups.

While the US-India military relationship has the potential for the above, it is a little surprising that it is limited by the Cold War defense arrangement made by earlier US administrations. The Area of Responsibility (AOR) for the US Pacific Command ends in the west at Diego Garcia; the East African countries along the Arabian Sea fall into the AOR of the US Central Command (CENTCOM), which is already engaged in operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. From west to east the CENTCOM’s AOR stretches from Turkey to Pakistan. For this reason all of the joint military exercises between the US and India have involved assets drawn from PACOM.

While this division had the potential for thwarting India’s economic and strategic interests in West and Central Asia, in reality India has nurtured close ties with most countries in the CENTCOM operational area. India had initially offered to supply troops for the peacekeeping operations in Afghanistan, but the US had declined that offer with Pakistan’s interests in mind–India though built on its past good relations with Afghanistan and has now acquired a definite stake in that vital country’s future. Interestingly the US had no such qualms in requesting Indian troops in another CENTCOM operation–Iraq. Though the then NDA government was enthusiastic about this offer for strategic reasons; under pressure from the opposition Congress and in light of the growing insurgency in Iraq it eventually turned down this request.

The role of military defence has been gradually shifted away from its primary role of providing security to enhancing commercial interest. With industrial growth and advancement of science and technology, the defence production led to a market oriented producer- purchaser relation between the developed and developing countries.The poor nation afflicted with conflicts became a super market for defence deals. For the powerful, military prowess which was earlier synonymous with political power has become a trademark of economic power.

But restraining factors were at work. The intellectual circle and the wisdom acquired from past experiences as also the active international diplomacy successfully taught the world community to disarm for peace and development. The agreement to network for prosperity through friendly trades and to resolve conflicts through peaceful dialogues have been advocated vehemently. The world community is now wiser and is aware of the bigger threat of survival posed by depleting resources. They campaign for pooled resources through collective efforts to save mankind and the world from further depletion.

Resource is scarce and is even scarcer with rising population particularly in poor countries which are already afflicted with hunger, illiteracy and joblessness. For these countries, the preparation for an impending war, which may never occur, is a sheer wastage of precious resource in terms of man, money and material. History evidenced the worthless used of armed coercion. If a stick is given to a hungry man to stop him from his cry for hunger, he will roar to bite you and connive with the neighbor to cause disaster. Instead of using the resources to crush the anger, it would be wiser to use the resource to fill the hungry belly and teach the hungry man to grow crops to sustain his future needs. The resources used for military purchase can fruitfully be used for peace and development.

The political compulsions may tempt the authority to take pride in the strength of the defence force. The military men pride themselves as the savior of the country. With due respect and regard to the defence services, I have a considered opinion to express. I think military might is an outdated concept of exalting the national self esteem. Recent history of military powers have evidenced the fatality of this approach. The pride of the nation is in the human asset and any nation that failed to nurture its most precious asset will lose its national pride even if it owns the most sophisticated war weapons to erase the entire human race.

Big defence budget in the developed world may entail an economic investment return out of defence production and sale exports. But how long can this go on? For poor countries, big defence budget produces a negative return, and hits the belly of the poor as his pie is taken away with every military purchase.In the new age, the defence security trade mark will diminish as more focus is now on economic security and sustainability of the future. The creative and innovative thinking to meet the future challenges will be a supreme consideration while war weapons will be valueless in the approaching apocalypse.

As with many industries, defence manufacturing has its own distinct characteristics that outsourced engineering and production firms need to cater to. Whether the contractor is tasked with producing military aircraft or submarine parts, very specific considerations need to be made when developing and producing equipment for this sector.

Perhaps differing from other sectors that thrive on the profit from the relative disposability of equipment as consumers seeks regular upgrades, the defence industry looks for durability and the long-term capability of all the equipment and machinery that it invests in.

As budgets can be limited, it is unwise to invest heavily in equipment with the view that it will simply be replaced or upgraded in a few years’ time when a newer technology is developed. Whereas civil aviation engineers may be constantly focused on the drive to innovate, those commissioning military aircraft are also interested in long-term efficiency and an extended lifespan.

This is not to say that the defence industry is not interested in innovation at all; in fact, the opposite can be true. Nations with larger defence budgets tend to be the ones pioneering cutting edge technology such as drones and other unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs), which is an indicator of the future of military vehicles.

Although there is a heavy emphasis on quality and durability, there is also a need for the military to harness the latest developments in technology for the benefit of its own military forces. Manufacturers of such equipment are therefore often required to deliver in all departments when designing and engineering such vehicles and devices.

Another key feature of the defence manufacturing industry is that budgets can be greatly restricted when compared with the civil and commercial sectors. The reason for this is simply that the defence budgets of many nations are – as they are state-funded – limited in scope, necessitating strategic spending for maximum results.

It is therefore absolutely imperative that a military aircraft engineering firm or a contract submarine parts manufacturer is able to offer affordable solutions, regardless of the equipment the company specialises in producing. Cost is a critical factor that must be expertly managed throughout the project from start to finish, with little room for wastage.

With this in mind, many companies or departments in the defence sector seek to work with contract engineers and manufacturers with experienced project managers that have a long history of working with the defence industry. This can ensure that the contractor in question is aware of the restrictions that are placed on the defence budget as well as the objectives that need to be achieved.

It should also be noted that, due to the necessity of creating highly cost-effective equipment and vehicles of outstanding quality, the design and development of projects can be longer than engineering and manufacturing in other industries. As it is necessary to have a number of essential components – cost, performance, innovation – in place, this balance can take longer to achieve.

This is now changing, especially in the cases where certain items of equipment are required for urgent deployment. Rather than this being a result of an improvement in manufacturing processes, it is due to the need for bodies in the defence sector to be rapidly prepared for instances of defence and conflict in an often volatile global environment.

From innovation to affordability, there are certain considerations of defence manufacturing that may resemble those of civil or commercial production, but they actually have their own nuances. With the sector on a tight budget yet very demanding in the way of performance, developing optimal parts and equipment can be a challenging balancing act.

Due to this, there are many specialised contract manufacturers – ranging from the military vehicle engineering firm to the submarine parts manufacturer – each catering specifically to the industry, ensuring that these very unique needs are met with attention and precision.

Military Self Defense 3 Basic Problems

1: Focused on strength and speed. Still has a competitive training attitude

2: Trained weapon control more than ending the attack

3: Rules instilled due to current media

**First problem,

Being focused on strength and speed are not bad things, but it assumes that you will better than your attacker. Hey, this might be the case most of the time in the gym, but after a long day at work? What if there is more than one of them. I am not stronger than two guys.

Military self defense training as hand to hand combat is the last resort. They mostly with weapons because that is the most effective way to attack. So when a soldier is left unarmed against a armed attacker, it is usually really bad. They are tired or hurt. Probably the situation you will be when attack on the street.

Criminals go after everyone, but especially the weak.

So you would think that military self defense would create a system with these things in mind and they did, back in World War Two. These systems cut down on training time, but then what are they going to do? Soldiers wanted to train more in hope to be more effective, and ventured out into other combat martial arts. Some found mixed martial arts and liked how you could compete all day/everyday and not injury your training partner.

Please understand that I am not saying that mixed martial arts are weakening military unarmed self defense. No way, but the way of training is. You see it is a know fact that you do as you train. Mixed martial arts is a sports and self defense is not. There are similarities, but you can not just flip a switch during combat and hope that you do the right thing.

Train in a way that does NOT promote physical attributes or sports competition.

**Second problem

Focusing on the weapon usually a gun, knife, or stick, but not on ending the threat. What? Wait, the gun, knife, or stick are not the threat? The person is the threat. You can take the weapon a way from them, and still get killed. Yet if you end the threat, it is over.

Again the military loves weapons and for good reason. Weapons work in ending the attack. Still the whole point is to end the attack and not to get the weapon. Semantics? No way, imagine you are fighting an attack and a gun goes flying to the floor. You dive for it and barely get it. What you did not see is the attacker smashing your skull in with their boot while you go for the gun. A little graphic, but very real. Please understand what the threat is here.

**Third problem

Rules instilled due to current media. That could mean the rules in sports like mixed martial arts or the way media views the military. We have gone over mixed martial arts a lot, but not on how the media sees the military self defense. Honestly this is my take on it, but from the vets I have talked to, this is a huge problem.

The media loves a story and they will tear apart anyone to get it. The military is trained in lethal moves and combat. So if they kill to defend themselves, but that is not acceptable here. The media knows this and plays a killer soldier story to death.

Understand that the media does help keep us all in check, but I believe that it can be abused. Military training knows this and tries to create ways to help their soldiers, but combat is combat. We are fighting for our lives here. So holding back in fear that it might get online or in the news is a real thing for many people not just the military.

So now what can be done?

I do not claim all the answers. I know something has to be done. I suggest you talk to your instructor (military self defense or not) about these issues and seek more help.

Need more military self defense training help?

This paper will examine the more obscure aspects of Boxing as a martial science. It will illustrate that the martial history, tradition and virtue of boxing is an undeniable fact albeit one that is rarely. If ever, seriously acknowledged and understood. It will concentrate upon the military applications rather than the normal sporting elements (although it will touch upon certain aspects of sporting competition where deemed appropriate) demonstrating how it has been an integral part of the training of a warrior since ancient times. It will explore how it was used to develop “fighting spirit” and” how it has continued in contributing to the origins and development of modern military close-combat techniques in much the same way as some oriental martial arts.

THE ANCIENT WORLD
Boxing is one of the most ancient of all the martial arts, and has quite a clear and traceable history when compared to other forms of combative systems. The term boxing derives from the box shape of the closed hand, or fist. In Latin, the fist is called pugnus (hence the alternative terms pugilism). Pugnus itself derives from the Greek pugme, meaning “fist.”

Boxing was practiced in one form or another by most of the classical civilisations of antiquity including those of Egypt, Sumer (A form of boxing can be seen in Sumerian Carvings from the 3rd millennium BC, while an Egyptian relief from about a thousand years later actually shows both participants and spectators. In each case the boxers are bare-fisted) and Crete(where it is even possible to see boxers depicted wearing a primitive type of glove). Even more ancient than this, In 1927, Archaeologist called Dr E. A. Speiser discovered a Mesopotamian stone tablet in Baghdad, Iraq that depicted two men preparing for a boxing match. This tablet is believed to be some 7000 years old!

Fighting with the fists is also described in several ancient Indian texts including the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Evidence has also been found in certain excavations carried out at the sight of two ancient cities called Mohenjadaro and Harappa in the Indus valley. However. Although fighting using the closed fists would seem to come naturally to most human beings, it was perhaps in Greece that the both the sport and science of Boxing began to gather wide-spread popularity, and was organised and developed accordingly.

It was in Greece that Boxing became an Olympic sport (688 BC), and it was in Greece that it was refined and recognised as being a valuable tool in the training of the warrior. Boxing is mentioned by Homer in the 13th book of the Illiad (Circa 675 BC) Wherein it is described as being part of the competitions the Mycenaeans used to honour their dead.

At this time, while there were some rules (such as forbidding any clinching or wrestling) there were absolutely no weight divisions, no rings, no rounds and no referee. Boxers simply pummelled each another until one was eventually knocked out or gave up. Consequently, serious injuries and even death were not that uncommon Pythagoras of Samos, who won the boxing crown at the 48th Olympiad (588 or 584 B.C.), is recognised as being the first trully “Technical Boxer”, for he was a relatively small man standing about 5ft7in and weighing in at only 160 pounds who never the less beat numerous much larger contestants.

As might be expected, it was the warlike Spartans who were to capitalise most with Boxing, recognising it as an effective means of instilling the fighting spirit in the recruit through not only building up levels of courage and tenacity, but also using it as a means of teaching the basics of fighting with the sword, spear and shield. In this manner boxing training became not only an effective unarmed fighting style in its own right, but also served in complimenting the effective use of certain weapons as part of an integrated system of combat training.

Spartan society was extremely martial, and they trained hard and long to be efficient soldiers on the battlefield. It is said that they were almost as dangerous unarmed as they were with a weapon. (Persian historical records of the battle of Thermopylae, where the 300 Spartans led by their king Leonidas, fought a desperate and suicidal rear-guard action in order to allow Greece more time to muster and organise her forces, even refers to these fierce and fanatical warriors as actually resorting to biting at their enemy!) As the popularity of boxing grew it became split and divided, with one branch being maintaining the martial aspect in order to compliment the armed prowess of the Hoplite, and the other concentrating upon sporting competitions (albeit quite brutal ones!). Thus, you had the professional soldier on the one hand and the sportsperson on the other. Even Homer tells us of the difference between combat sports and actual combat; he describes the lament of the champion boxer Epeios, who asked that his incompetence on the battlefield be excused because of his success in sport boxing, saying that it was not possible to good at all things and that the only place where he wasn’t able to fight well was the battlefield itself! (Iliad XXIII) However, he is also credited with designing and building the Trojan horse with the help of Athena, as is told in the (Odyssey IV.265ff and Odyssey VIII.492ff) so, perhaps the poor fellow had a point after all, and we should let him off!

The Etruscans were particularly fond of boxing and were actually the very first to introduce the term “Pugilism” a word that has since become synonymous with the science and which continues to be used right up to the present day. Later, Boxing became an integral part of the training regime for Roman Legionaries, with a particularly savage form being adapted for use in the so called “games” of the Arena. It eventually became popular throughout Rome, with all types of people participating including members of the aristocracy (A fight between the agile Dares and the towering Entellus is described at length in the Roman national epic Aeneid (1st century BC). In 500 A.D., boxing was banned altogether by Holy Roman Emperor Theodoric the Great as being offensive to the creator as it disfigured the face which was the image of God. However, this edict had little effect outside the major cities of the Eastern Empire, therefore, boxing continued to evolve as both a sport and a method of self defence throughout Europe but particularly in Italy and especially in the British Isles.

PRIZE FIGHTING ERA
Boxing resurfaces in strength in England during the early 18th century as “Bare-Knuckle Boxing” sometimes also referred to as” prize-fighting”. The first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared back in 1681 in a newspaper called ” the London Protestant Mercury” with the first English champion being James Figg in 1719. As a well as being the first boxing champion of England, James Figg was also a very adept cudgel-fighter and swordsman and was to play a pivotal role in the boxing renaissance. When he opened his school in London in 1719 Figg made a reasonable living out of teaching young gentleman the art of self-defence by applying the precepts of modern fencing-footwork, speed, and the straight lunge-to fist-fighting.

This is interesting in that, as we remember, Boxing was originally used in order to augment and enhance training with weapons in ancient Greece, whereas now, Boxers learned to throw straight punches, the basis of modern boxing, from fencers. To some extent, it could even be said that boxing replaced duelling with swords and pistols, allowing men of all social classes to defend themselves and their honour without necessarily having to severely maim or kill each other. Despite this connection with fencing, boxing encounters during this early modern era were largely unstructured and highly uncivilized. Boxers fought bare-knuckle (without gloves), and wrestling, choking, throwing, gouging, and purring (stomping on one’s opponent with spiked boots) were commonplace, so that, in some respects at least, it bore much more of a resemblance to the ancient Greek Pankration or Japanese Jiu-Jitsu than to the sport we all now know and accept as being boxing.